Crude oil is classified into five categories based on the measured density api gravity. This courseware module is part of penn states college of earth and mineral sciences oer initiative. Abosede department of crop production and soil science ladoke akintola university of technology, p. Crude oil is also classified based on physical characteristics and chemical composition, and these qualities are described with terms such as sweet, sour, light, and heavy. The physical and chemical components of nigerian crude oil. It will float on water, as its specific gravity is less than 1, and it is.
Pdf distillation process of crude oil researchgate. Large data bank improves crude physical property correlations. Crude oil testing and assay services provided by intertek support customers from the wellhead to the refinery across the world. They vary according to the composition of the oil, the relative abundance of the groups of hydrocarbons, and essentially depend on reservoir temperatures and pressures. Introduction properties of crude oils and oil products vii during any oil spill incident, the properties of the spilled oil must be known immediately. Pdf effect of crude oil products on the geotechnical. If a crude oil is buried deeply and for a long time, extensive breaking apart of the carbon chains can occur. The emergence of large volumes of tight oils within the north american transportation system over the last decade coupled with several highprofile train accidents involving crude oils, has raised questions about the role of oil properties in general, and tight oils in particular, in affecting the severity of hazard outcomes in related crude. Crude oil assay database details knovels crude oil assay database, updated in 2015, is a unique, interactive compilation of key physical and chemical properties from over 500 assays covering over 340 crude oils commonly available on the world market. Crude oil properties laboratory petroleum reservoir. This difference is mainly the result of the tendency of oil to plate out on metal surfaces, on the protective properties of the scale and deposits formed on surfaces contacted by crude oil and to the inhibitive properties of some of the constituents found in the oil. Rahmanian2 1sharif university of technology, tehran, iran 2university of bradford, bradford, united kingdom 1.
Crude oil and all other commodities are ranked based on their aggregate 3month fund flows for all u. The relative percentage of each varies from oil to oil, determining the properties of each oil. The shorter the paraffins are, the lighter the crude is. Used in crude oil classification, weight and volume conversion. Therefore an olddeep crude oil has low viscosity, low density, and very low sulfur content.
Petroleum or crude oil is a naturally occurring oily, bituminous liquid composed of various organic chemicals. Physical and chemical properties of crude oil and oil products 1 density, specific gravity, and api gravity density is defined as mass per unit volume of a fluid. Sulfur and nitrogen are bound to some of these hydrocarbon compounds. Crude oil assay wti from ogj article 8 calculate the wt% increment yield values from the vol% values, the. Survey of crude oil characteristics 051414a without comments. They vary according to the composition of the oil, the relative abundance of the groups of hydrocarbons, and essentially depend on. This mixture of molecules is separated at the refinery by distillation into. For heavy oil reservoirs, the oil viscosity usually varies dramatically during production processes such as in thermal processes. Some of the most important physical properties of crude oil include. Scribd is the worlds largest social reading and publishing site. Effect of crude oil products on the geotechnical properties of soil article pdf available in wit transactions on ecology and the environment 186. Unfortunately, the properties routinely measured by oil producers and refiners are not the ones that onscene commanders need to know most urgently. The results show that bakken crude oil may appropriately be classified as a. In appearance, for instance, it ranges from colourless to black.
Standard test methods astm and others for crude oil. They diffuse at a very fast rate, thus decreasing toxicity. Ideally, fluid properties such as bubblepoint pressure, solution gasoil ratio, formation volume factor and others are determined from laboratory studies designed to duplicate the conditions of interest. Sandia national laboratories was commissioned by the u. Density is a state function and for a pure compound depends on both temperature and pressure and is shown by liquid. Spilled crude oil or unrefined petroleum from pipelines, trains, trucks, tanks, and other sources. The historical aspect of crude oil sheds light on its initial discovery at oloibiri in the niger delta region of nigeria after close to half a century of exploration by expatriates. Density given that the density of fresh water is 1. Each year, enbridge compiles a summary of selected chemical and physical properties of crude oils and condensates moved in the liquids pipelines system, which are included in the pdf file below. Oil is used to power our vehicles, to create medicines that keep us healthy, and to make the plastics, cosmetics, and other personal products that enhance our daily lives. The petroleum industry often names crude based on the oils geographical source, for example, west texas intermediate. Heavyoil development is becoming increasingly important because of the continuous decline in conventionaloil production.
Confusing heterogeneous denominations arise because of similar key characteristics presented by these resources. Changes with temperature, decreasing temperature increases viscosity. However, none of these products would exist without the. Viscosity is more commonly known as resistance to flow. Because crude oil is a mixture of such widely varying constituents and proportions, its physical properties also vary widely. It is a mixture of about 10 different types of fairly simple hydrocarbons, depending on its source. A type of fossil fuel, crude oil can be refined to produce usable. When producing heavy oil, the high viscosity is a major impediment to recovery. Determination of the heptane insoluble asphaltene content of gas oil, diesel fuel, residual fuel oils, lubricating oil, bitumen, and crude petroleum that has been topped. Crude oil properties laboratory free download as powerpoint presentation. Specific gravity can be calculated from api gravity. Four different types of hydrocarbon molecules appear in crude oil. Standard test methods astm and others for crude oil properties.
Pvt properties and viscosity correlations for gulf of mexico. Api gravity express the gravity or density of crude oil and liquid petroleum products. Physical properties of oil viscosity the viscosity of an oil is a measure of the oil s resistance to shear. Crude oil characteristics research sampling, analysis and. The energy information administration projects that u. However, sour crudes such as those from the middle east and some from the. End point of the titration and calculated the mercaptans content salt content each crude oil sample was dissolved in organic solvent and exposed to the cell of analyzer.
Refining adds value by converting crude oil which in itself has little enduse value into a range. Each crude oil reservoir and stream has unique properties and characteristics. These crude oils possess very high volatility and thus are capable of evaporating within a very short time window of a few days. Paraffins are the desired content in crude and what are used to make fuels. Chapter one oil and gas properties and correlations e. In general, bakken crude oil presents the same physical properties as gasoline or other fuels. Crude oil price today brent oil price chart oil price per. This combination of properties makes the olddeep crudes the most. The general oil classification is related to the crude oils ease of flow and conse. Api is devised jointly by the american petroleum institute and the nist national institute of standards and technology. Both are a complex mix of compounds consisting mostly of the elements carbon and hydrogen.
At the same time, most of the sulfur compounds in the oil are broken down. Prediction of heavyoil viscosities with a simple correlation. The properties of oil make it uniquely irreplaceable as a lubricant for vehicular and other machinery use. Fundamental corrosive properties of crude oils and their.
Absorbents, cleanup materials, soil, and water contaminated with crude oil or unrefined petroleum. Physical properties of oil viscosity the viscosity of an oil is a measure of the oils resistance to shear. Semih eser, professor of energy and geoenvironmental engineering, college of earth and mineral sciences, penn state. This chapter addresses fundamental issues revolving around the history, classification, properties, and purification of crude oil and its products.
History, process and products nearly every aspect of our modern lifestyle is impacted by oil. Physical and chemical properties of crude oils and their. However, experimental data are quite often unavailable because representative samples cannot be obtained or the producing horizon does not warrant the expense of an indepth reservoir fluid study. This report assembles afpm member responses to questions posed by dot and provides summary data on bakken crude oil characteristics and hazards based on the sample information collected. Effect of crude oil pollution on some soil physical properties ewetola e. Crude oil characteristics research sampling, analysis and experiment sae plan the u. Nolan, in handbook of fire and explosion protection engineering principles for oil, gas, chemical, and related facilities fourth edition, 2019. Crude oil is by far the worlds most important energy source and the price of oil therefore plays an important role in industrial and economic development. When the word oil is used without particular context, it must be understood to refer to the product resulting from the refinement of crude oil for example, motor oil, or engine oil.
The chemical composition of used mineralbased crankcase oil varies widely and depends on the original crude oil, the processes used during refining, the efficiency and type of engine the oil is lubricating, the gasoline combustion products, the additives added to the fuel and to the original oil. Crude classification paraffinic base mixed or intermediate naphthenic base. The majority of crude oil is alkanes, cycloalkanes naphthenes, aromatics, polycyclic aromatics, scontaining compounds, etc. The release of crude oil into the environment by oil spills is receiving worldwide attention due to the. Apr 23, 2020 the petroleum industry often names crude based on the oils geographical source, for example, west texas intermediate. It is found in large quantities below the surface of the earth and is used as a fuel and a raw material feedstock in the. Except where otherwise noted, content on this site is licensed under a creative commons attributionnoncommercialsharealike 4. Effect of crude oil products on the geotechnical properties. A partial listing of the worlds crude oils is listed.
Crude oil is a naturally occurring, unrefined petroleum product composed of hydrocarbon deposits and other organic materials. Composition and properties of crude oil in nigeria. Crude oil sg changes, although small, may be important. For heavyoil reservoirs, the oil viscosity usually varies dramatically during production processes such as in thermal processes. Crude oil properties are estimated from crude oil analysis and are used for exploration, development, production and sales of crude oil as follows.
Effect of crude oil pollution on some soil physical properties. Possibly the most important physical property is specific gravity i. Straightrun distillates may also be used to produce fuel oil no. Importantly, properties of the residual oil change as the light components of the oil are removed. Petroleum refinery activities start with receipt of. Mercaptans content each crude oil sample was dissolved in sodium acetate and titrated with silver nitrate. Department of energy to investigate the material properties of crude oils, and in particular the socalled tight oils like bakken that comprise the majority of crude oil rail shipments in the u.
Refining adds value by converting crude oil which in itself has little enduse value into a range of refined products, including transportation fuels. A read is counted each time someone views a publication summary such as the title, abstract, and list of authors, clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the fulltext. Heavy oil development is becoming increasingly important because of the continuous decline in conventional oil production. The general oil classification is related to the crude oil s ease of flow and conse. Characterisation of oil properties from a niger delta crude. The measuring scale is calibrated in terms of degrees api. Physical and chemical properties of crude oil and oil products. Crude oil price today brent oil price chart oil price. Apr 21, 2020 crude oil is a naturally occurring, unrefined petroleum product composed of hydrocarbon deposits and other organic materials. Petroleum crude oil composition by weight hydrocarbon average range paraffins 30% 15 to 60% naphthenes 49% 30 to 60% aromatics 15% 3 to 30% asphaltics 6% remainder. Heavy oil, extra heavy oil, oil sand, tar sands, oil shale and bitumen are all unconventional oil resources. New correlations for crude oil physical properties, society of petroleum engineers, unsolicited paper 23556ms. Characteristics of crude oil the hydrocarbons in crude oil can generally be divided into four categories. There are four main types of crude oil based on densities and toxicity levels as determined by their volatilities karras, 2010.1116 914 524 148 980 243 1496 1295 40 1484 916 906 300 618 933 953 880 117 1363 285 212 834 955 327 1003 543 1401 1242 1372 706 725 1359 1208 386 555 671 1042 1049 447